1. The whole sum of characteristics of house's environment, planning, constructions and materials is a certain system. And like all system this one contains
both fundamental, the most stable - structural characteristics, and secondary,
unstable - changeable ones. Structural characteristics are based on stable
fundamental determinants, changeable - on unstable ones. Quality of any system
depends on structural characteristics, which together form Frame of the System
and possess the highest priority.
* * *
2. In accordance with this principle it is possible to divide all characteris-tics of house's environment, planning, constructions and materials into levels
А, В and С.
A level - the most, stable and general characteristics. They form the General Model of the ideal house's environment (temperature, humidity and mobility of air, intensity of solar and nuclear radiations, electromagnetic fields etc.) for various age groups and standard states of human being (staying awake, sleep, work with various expenditure of energy etc.). This Model is based on psycho-physiological features of human being. All parameters of this Model are inter-connected, therefore this Model is the complex of characteristics. It is reason-able to correct this theoretical Model from time to time in the course of accu-mulation of knowledge. This Model is a basis for all theoretical, normative and practical works in the sphere of architecture and construction, since all kinds of dwelling and public buildings are only envelopes for various kinds of vital activity of human being. Let us call this General Model of the ideal house's environment - E G M.
В level. The practical tasks of creating of the ideal house's environment may be decided only in the reference to concrete climatic conditions, since there are the problems of transfer from outside environment to inner and back. Hence it is necessary to elaborate on the basis of EGM some Regional Models for all climatic regions. This task is of great importance for the USA, because, of there are such varied regions as Alaska and Florida, Hawaii and New England etc. These Regional Models should be elaborated for extreme and standard conditions of all seasons. It is reasonable to correct these theoretical Models from time to time in according with correcting EGM and accumulation of knowledge about optimum connection between inner and outside environments. These Regional Models are the practical bases for all theoretical, normative and design activity in the sphere of architecture and construction in each climatic region. Let us call these Regional Models of the ideal house's environment for each region - E R M.
С level. The A and В levels are the sphere of medical researches, and establish what - which parameters of environment it is necessary to ensure. The С level is the sphere of architectural and constructive researches, and establishes how to ensure these parameters. Unlike levels A and B, which are determined by stable determinants of human being's features and features of climate, the level С is determined by very unstable in space and time determinants of technology and economy. Hence researches and recommendations into the sphere of planning, constructions and materials have always local and temporary character, character here and now1. The mass of this activity is huge, because of large number of subjects of researches. And this activity should be permanent.
So, the A level has the highest rating, the В level - mean, the С level - the least. Inside of the С level various researches into the sphere of planning, constructions and materials have different ratings depending on specific of the present region, and besides - these ratings change in the course of time.
3. The strategy of researches into the sphere of house's inner environment must conform with the described structure of problems and researches.
The first stage - elaboration of the Model EGM and then - periodical correction of this one. Boundaries of climatic regions should be determined at the first stage too. Because of all these problems are the national matters it is reasonable that national organizations should finance and lead works of this stage.
The second stage - elaboration of the Model ERM for all climatic regions and then - periodical correction of these Models. It is reasonable that regional organizations of states of each region should finance and lead works of this stage.
The third stage - all researches into the sphere of planning, construction and materials for all climatic regions of the USA. Simultaneously with instrumental researches for present climatic region it is necessary to reveal analogous climatic regions over the world with purpose of studying methods of adaptation to such climate in folk architectures. All researches in the sphere of planning, constructions and materials should be realized spontaneously by the influence of new ideas and achievements in technology, and changes in the economic situation. Because of character and significance of problems of each element of construction are different in various regions (for example - the problem of outside walls for Alaska and Mississippi, or roofing for Nevada and Florida) it is necessary to study and elaborate these elements in each region separately. So, all architectural and constructive researches should be concentrated through regions. Because of huge variety and spontaneity of these researches it is reasonable to finance and lead them by the very various organizations, firms etc. But it is expedient "to keep the hand on the pulse11 in order to reveal the most important regional and national problems and themes of researches. With this purpose it is reasonable to hold regional and national scientific conferences from time to time.
The task of discovery of optimal house's environment and means of ensuring of this one is, obviously, of vital importance. Much in health and well-being of the nation depend on quality of solution of this task. That is why, I believe, it is necessary to solve this task with the united, wide-scale, long standing system of researches.
1 Presently utilization of light Gauge Steel as a Substitute for Timber in single-family houses in the South of the USA 4 times as much as it is in the Midwest and in many times пасе than in the West and Northwest. National average price of Framing Lumber increase from $282 per 1000 board feet in 1992 to $434 in April 1993. These examples illustrate necessity to solve all problems in the sphere of architectural and constructive researches in the USA only for specific conditions of plane and tine.